Summary


TERI in collaboration with Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India, had undertaken a project titled "Sustainable development through – research, customisation and demonstration of efficient technologies" in Jagdishpur block, district Sultanpur in Uttar Pradesh, for carrying out a field based research on technology driven sustainable development in rural India. As part of this project, modern energy devices to meet rural cooking and lighting needs were demonstrated and disseminated through various channels in eight villages selected in the project area.

 

The main aim of the research and development efforts was to reduce emissions, minimize costs and improve thermal efficiency of currently available biomass cook stove models. The commercially available cookstoves, both natural and forced draft, were thus tested in laboratory and then subjected to user trials in project villages. Based on the results [1] two forced draft models- Philips HD4012 woodstove and improved cookstove model SPT610 developed by TERI were selected for dissemination in project area.

 

A cost subsidy using the project funds was planned in the initial stages. Eventually, the subsidy was removed in a phased manner and a market based mechanism was experimented in the form of Uttam Urja Shop, wherein a local energy entrepreneur was encouraged to undertake a venture for promotion, sales and after sales service of the clean energy products.

This case study is an assessment of various institutional and market based interventions experimented in the project area for large scale adoption and use of improved cookstoves by the rural households.

 

 

Contents
  1. Objective
  2. Target Group
  3. Output
  4. Key Features of the Case
  5. Sustainable Financing
  6. Supportive Policies and Institutional Environment
  7. Building Local Capacity and Skills
  8. Community Participation and Including Local Stakeholders
  9. Achieving Co-Benefits
  10. Affordability and Technical Issues
  11. Local Champions
  12. Monitoring and Evaluation
  13. Replicability and Scaling-up
  14. Contact
  15. References and Further Reading

 

Objective


Demonstration and dissemination of clean and efficient "Improved Cookstoves" in selected villages in rural areas of Uttar Pradesh to study different factors influencing the adoption and use of improved cooking devices.

 

 

Target Group


Eight villages in Jagdishpur Block of eastern Uttar Pradesh, covering an area of 693.7 hectares with approximately 1246 households, ~7500 people [2].

 

 


Output


  • Two forced draft models- Philips HD4012 woodstove and improved cookstove model SPT610 developed by TERI were selected for dissemination in project area.
  • Fuel saving up to 50% when compared to a traditional mud stove. This reduces the hardships faced by women in fetching fuelwood from long distance areas
  • 80% reduction in smoke reducing the indoor air pollution (IAP), which improves the health condition of women and children in the households
  • Less soot formation on cooking vessels and kitchen walls reduces the efforts in cleaning vessels and makes the kitchen a better place from an aesthetic point of view
  • Around 50% reduction in cooking time

 

Key Features of the Case


  • The thermal efficiency levels of these improved stoves (36% for HD4012 and 40% for SPT610) are significantly higher as compared to a traditional mud stove (around 12%).
  • Community participation at all stages of project execution starting from selection of cookstove technologies, customization to suit local needs and subsequent promotion and dissemination of products.
  • The concept of energy entrepreneur (Uttam Urja Shop) introduced to establish a sustainable business model and promote the clean and energy efficient cooking and lighting devices. Special focus on after sales service of these products to gain confidence of end users.
  • Rigorous laboratory and field testing of different types of cooking and lighting devices in order to facilitate the community to take an informed decision on selection of devices for demonstration and dissemination.

 

 

Sustainable Financing


Initial risk and investment was completely borne through the project funds. The funding in this case was facilitated by the DST, Government of India. Though the funds were sufficient to provide 100% subsidy on all the cooking and lighting devices to be disseminated under the project, a decision was taken in consultation with all the project stakeholders to devise a financing mechanism that will make the adoption and use of clean energy products sustainable in the long run. As anticipated, a major deterring factor was the cost of the improved cookstoves because rural communities were reluctant to pay Rs 3000 for a cookstove. Thus, to resolve this, a cost subsidy using the project funds was planned to accelerate the stove purchase by rural households. To start with, the subsidy was as high as 80% when the HD4012 model was offered at Rs 550. The cost of stove was eventually increased to Rs 1000, Rs 1500 and at last at Rs 1800. In some cases the households even purchased the SPT610 model at a full cost of Rs 2700.

 

The energy entrepreneur running the Uttam Urja Shop was eventually made responsible for promotion, sales and after sales service of these devices. The entrepreneur was identified from the project villages after verifying the social and financial background and interest in undertaking such a venture. This Uttam Urja Shop by the entrepreneur was self-financed to a large extent. The training and capacity building in terms of technical know-how of products, marketing and sales, identification of manufacturers and suppliers was provided by TERI.

 

The reduction of subsidy and increase of price was implemented in a gradual manner in continuous consultation with concerned communities, energy entrepreneur and funding agencies. These price revisions happened in phases and from the beginning on the project, households were made aware of the discount they are getting for adopting a new technology. Also, from a market perspective, when stove demand accelerated after first phase of the project, the Uttam Urja Shop surveyed the target villages to find out an average household's interest and willingness to pay for an improved stove. Subsequently when market for the stoves started growing and finance was available for the stoves, the subsidy was taken off and redesigned in a way to pay for household's loan interest subsidy, applicable taxes and transport [3].

 

It was observed that when executed in a planned manner, the stove demand followed a spiral growth wherein the sales dip initially when price is increased but can be boosted up through revised awareness campaigns, product customization and offers like interest free micro-loans.

 

 

Supportive Policies and Institutional Environment


Apart from the financial support from DST, there were no particular institutions or policies that were utilized for this intervention. The entrepreneur did not implement any schemes or policies that are currently available by the government or the other organizations. However, some schemes and subsidies are currently offered by the government and various regional banks that are targeting and extending their support to the local MSME entrepreneurs as well as the end users. Institutions such as National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD), are offering support and financial mechanisms for the end users to be able to leverage such support. In addition, a National Biomass Cookstove Initiative (NBCI) has been launched by the GoI to support the promotion and use of Improved Cookstoves in the country. Also, the Global Alliance on Clean Cookstoves (GACC) formed with support from the United Nations is supporting the cookstove movement at an international level.

 

 

Building Local Capacity and Skills


In the process of stove dissemination, the village level volunteers were trained to provide servicing and maintenance of stoves sold by them in their respective areas. After the establishment of Uttam Urja Shop, these volunteers were connected to the shop as the entrepreneur's sales representatives in respective areas. The shop was also provided with branding and marketing support to explore a wider market beyond the project villages. In addition, a network of manufacturers, suppliers and distributors was identified to establish a supply chain of clean energy products that can be utilized by the Uttam Urja Shop and benefit from the operational efficiency.

 

 

Community Participation and Including Local Stakeholders


A major population of the community in project areas was unaware of the existence of such a technology. In initial stages of the project a detailed survey of end-users and villages was conducted to establish a baseline in order to finalize the project goals and implementation strategy. One of the key features of the project was its participatory framework. The 8 villages so selected (from about 25 villages initially surveyed) for the project were based on the local community's willingness and interest in the proposed intervention. Accordingly, the clean energy technologies were discussed with the local people, field testing and demonstration were planned with volunteers in each village and end-user feedback was collected. Gram Panchayat officials, opinion leaders, school teachers and local businessmen were thus contacted at various stages of the project to understand the needs of communities and arrive at a sustainable execution model.

 

 

Achieving Co-Benefits


Some of the primary objectives of the project were:

  • Identification and demonstration of clean and efficient energy technologies with wider application for rural areas.
  • Comparison of different types of cooking and lighting devices as against the traditional devices being used by local people based on laboratory testing and field trials.
  • Involvement of local communities at all stages of the project to integrate technological solutions with end-user needs and expectations. The idea was to facilitate rapid customization of technologies that will lead to improved adoption and use of the technologies.
  • Establish a sustainable business model to establish a market for these clean cooking and lighting devices.

 

 

When the project was concluded in May 2012, most of the above mentioned objectives were fulfilled with more than 600 improved cooking devices disseminated in the project area and demand for clean cooking and lighting devices rising over a period of time as informed by the Uttam Urja Shop entrepreneur. In addition to the technological and market objectives, one of the biggest advantages of the improved cookstove dissemination is the benefits to the women and children. Efficient fuel burning reduces the hardships faced by women in fetching fuelwood from long distance areas. By reducing the indoor air pollution (IAP), it improves the health condition of women and children in the household [4] and less soot formation on cooking vessels and kitchen walls reduces the efforts in cleaning vessels and makes the kitchen a better place from aesthetic point of view.

 

 

Affordability and Technical Issues


As compared to a freely constructed traditional mud stove, an improved forced draft cookstove is considered to be very expensive. However, when the household saw its advantages in terms of fuel efficiency, less smoke, reduced cooking time, many of them were convinced to invest in an improved cooking device. The only demand from the community is of a financing mechanism wherein they can pay the price of cookstoves in easy instalments (EMI). However, convincing the financial institutions like regional rural banks (RRB) or Micro-finance institutions (MFI) is another mammoth task, especially after the recent turmoil observed in the micro-finance industry in India. In order to make the technology affordable to masses in the long run, other means such as policy support, establishment of industry and markets for these technologies and increased awareness among end-user will be necessary.

 

 

Local Champions


Considering the risks and efforts required in dissemination and adoption of improved cookstoves in the selected areas, some of the key personnel from the local communities who played an important role in the project execution were:

 

 

1. Energy Entrepreneur running the Uttam Urja Shop

2. Volunteers and opinion leaders in each of the eight villages

3. The end-users, especially the early adopters of the improved cookstoves

4. Gram Panchayats and other government officials who supported the project at different stages

 

 

Monitoring and Evaluation


A baseline survey was conducted at the beginning of the project with separate interview schedules for collecting households and village level data. Based on the analysis and findings, it was observed that the traditional cookstoves being used under the project have an approximate efficiency of 12%, produce a lot of smoke (the Particulate Matter levels were measured for this purpose) and result in extended cooking hours, drudgery to women, blackening of utensils and kitchen walls.

 

The intervention phase was thus planned where focused group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in each village to understand the household cooking needs and expectations. As a result, different commercially and ready-to-commercialize stove models (both natural and forced draft) were tested in laboratory and through field trials to identify the suitable model for further dissemination. In this process, the demographic, economic and social aspects related to each community were taken into account to evaluate the outcome form this intervention.

 

As explained earlier, the stove dissemination was started with a subsidy and eventually converted to a market based mechanism wherein the endeavour was to establish a sustainable business model. For continuous monitoring of the interventions and various types of market experiments, volunteers in project area were identified and trained to collect data on vital indicators related to stove adoption and use. 

 

At the end of the project, another impact assessment survey was administered for both households and villages to assess the impact of the project activities. The households using the cookstoves reported a substantial saving (around 50%) in terms of fuel consumption, reduced smoke and cooking time. A major negative aspect of the stove was the need to process the biomass into small pieces before feeding into the stove. Also, households using dung cakes instead of firewood as a fuel did not get satisfactory results from the improved biomass stove.

 

 

Replicability and Scaling-up


  • Building on the success stories from the DST project, TERI has disseminated over 1000 cookstoves in five states (Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Haryana, Kerala and Odisha) using various finance modes (full subsidy, partial subsidy and full cost).

 

  • TERI has also launched a major cookstove initiative with support of Department of International Development (DFID), Government of United Kingdom. In this initiative the focus is on adoption of clean cooking technologies by 100,000 households in 5 years through development of various innovative business models and value chains across India.

 

  • To make modern energy access sustainable in the long run, 41 rural Energy Entrepreneurs across 8 states of the country have been identified so far who will be trained and established to run the "Uttam Urja Shops" in their respective areas. The plan is to scale up the number of Uttam Urja Shops to 500 in next 2-3 years.

 

  • Under a project funded by the Department of Science and Technology, TERI has so far tested 11 cook stove models, has been able to reduce the cost by 40%, optimized the right mix of fuels for production of pellets.

 

  • The Institute is the core implementing partner in Project Surya, in partnership with other international actors. Project Surya is pioneered the use of cell phones to monitor the use of stoves in an affordable and accurate manner & transmit the data so obtained to calculate carbon offsets for the community.

 

  • TERI is an implementing partner of the Global Alliance for Clean Cook stoves.

 

 

 

 

Contact


Mr Vivek Jha, Area Convenor, Rural Extension Activity,

The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI),

Darbari Seth Block, IHC Complex, Lodhi Road, New Delhi - 110 003, INDIA
Tel. (+91 11) 2468 2100 and 41504900

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

 

References and Further Reading


[1] Kar A, Praveen P S, Suresh R, Rehman I H, Singh L, Singh V K, Ahmed T, Burney J, Ramanathan V. 2012. Real time assessment of black carbon pollution in rural households due to cooking in traditional and improved biomass stoves. Environ. Sci. Technol., 46 (5), 2993–3000.

 

[2] Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. (2001). Census of India- 2001. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India.

 

[3] Bailis R, Cowan A, Berrueta V, Masera O. 2009. Arresting the Killer in the Kitchen: The promises and pitfalls of Commercializing Improved Cookstoves. World Development Vol. 37, No. 10, pp. 1694–1705, 2009

 

[4] WHO.2006. Fuel for Life: Household Energy and Health. World Health Organization, Geneva.

 

 

 

Name:

Demonstration and Dissemination of “Forced Draft” Improved Biomass Cookstoves in India

Country:

India

Location:

Print

Implementer:

The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) in collaboration with Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India, undertook a project to demonstrate and disseminate modern energy devices to meet rural cooking and lighting needs in eight villages of Uttar Pradesh.

 

Contact:

Mr Vivek Jha, Area Convenor, Rural Extension Activity,

The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI),

Darbari Seth Block, IHC Complex, Lodhi Road, New Delhi - 110 003, INDIA
Tel. (+91 11) 2468 2100 and 41504900

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

Technology:

Fuel efficient wood stove

Energy resource:

  • Biomass

Sub type:

  • Dung
  • Forest residue
  • Wood

Sector:

  • Energy supply
  • Energy consumption
  • Household

Service:

  • Cooking

Grid:

  • Off-Grid

Targeted area:

  • Rural

Geographical scope:

Regional

Project status:

Completed project

Project start:

2008

End date:

2012

Implementing approach:

Multi-stakeholder partnership

Funding Type:

  • Grant

Budget (Euro):

<20,000